The Warsaw Pact | World History Commons (2024)

The Warsaw Pact, 1955

Treaty of friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance

Between the People's Republic of Albania, the People's Republic of Bulgaria, the
Hungarian People's Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Polish People's
Republic, the Rumanian People's Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and
the Czechoslovak Republic, May 1, 1955

The contracting parties,

Reaffirming their desire for the organisation of a system of collective security in Europe,
with the participation of all the European states, irrespective of their social and state
systems, which would make it possible to combine their efforts in the interests of
securing peace in Europe,

Taking into consideration at the same time the situation obtaining in Europe as the result
of ratification of the Paris agreements, which provide for the formation of a new military
grouping in the shape of the "Western European Union" together with a remilitarised
Western Germany, and for the integration of Western Germany in the North Atlantic
bloc, which increases the threat of another war and creates a menace to the national
security of the peace-loving states,

Convinced that, under these circ*mstances, the peace-loving states of Europe should take
the necessary measures for safeguarding their security, and in the interests of maintaining
peace in Europe,

Guided by the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter,

In the interests of further strengthening and promoting friendship, cooperation and mutual
assistance, in accordance with the principles of respect for the independence and
sovereignty of states, and also with the principle of noninterference in their internal
affairs,

Have resolved to conclude this Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual
Assistance, . . .

Article 1. The contracting parties undertake, in accordance with the Charter of the United
Nations Organisation, to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of
force, and to settle their international disputes by peaceful means so as not to endanger
international peace and security.

Article 2. The contracting parties declare their readiness to take part, in the spirit of
sincere co-operation, in all international undertakings intended to safeguard international
peace and security and they shall use all their energies for the realisation of these aims.

Moreover, the contracting parties shall work for the adoption, in agreement with other
states desiring to co-operate in this matter, of effective measures towards a general
reduction of armaments and prohibition of atomic, hydrogen and other weapons of mass
destruction.

Article 3. The contracting parties shall take council among themselves on all important
international questions relating to their common interests, guided by the interests of
strengthening international peace and security.

They shall take council among themselves immediately, whenever, in the opinion of any
of them, there has arisen the threat of an armed attack on one or several states that are
signatories of the treaty, in the interests of organising their joint defence and of upholding
peace and security.

Article 4. In the event of an armed attack in Europe on one or several states that are
signatories of the treaty by any state or group of states, each state that is a party to this
treaty shall, in the exercise of the right to individual or collective self-defence in
accordance with Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations Organisation, render the
state or states so attacked immediate assistance, individually and in agreement with other
states that are parties to this treaty, by all the means it may consider necessary, including
the use of armed force. The states that are parties to this treaty shall immediately take
council among themselves concerning the necessary joint measures to be adopted for the
purpose of restoring and upholding international peace and security.

In accordance with the principles of the Charter of the United Nations Organisation, the
Security Council shall be advised of the measures taken on the basis of the present article.
These measures shall be stopped as soon as the Security Council has taken the necessary
measures for restoring and upholding international peace and security-.

Article 5. The contracting parties have agreed on the establishment of a joint command
for their armed forces, which shall be placed, by agreement among these parties, under
this command, which shall function on the basis of jointly defined principles. They shall
also take other concerted measures necessary for strengthening their defence capacity, in
order to safeguard the peaceful labour of their peoples, to guarantee the inviolability of
their frontiers and territories and to provide safeguards against possible aggression.

Article 6. For the purpose of holding the consultations provided for in the present treaty
among the states that are parties to the treaty, and for the purpose of considering
problems arising in connection with the implementation of this treaty, a political
consultative committee shall be formed in which each state that is a party to this treaty
shall be represented by a member of the government, or any other specially appointed
representative.

The committee may, form the auxiliary organs for which the need may arise.

Article 7. The contracting parties undertake not to participate in any coalitions and
alliances, and not to conclude any agreements the purposes of which would be at variance
with those of the present treaty.

The contracting parties declare that their obligations under existing international treaties
are not at variance with the provisions of this treaty.

Article 8. The contracting parties declare that they will act in the spirit of friendship and
co-operation with the object of furthering the development of, and strengthening the
economic and cultural relations between them, adhering to the principles of mutual
respect for their independence and sovereignty, and of non-interference in their internal
affairs.

Article 9. The present treaty is open to be acceded to by other states-irrespective of their
social and state systems-which may express their readiness to assist, through participation
in the present treaty, in combining the efforts of the peace-loving states for the purpose of
safeguarding the peace and security, of nations. This act of acceding to the treaty shall
become effective, with the consent of the states that are parties to this treaty, after the
instrument of accedence has been deposited with the government of the Polish People's
Republic.

Article 10. The present treaty is subject to ratification, and the instruments of ratification
shall be deposited with the government of the Polish People's Republic.

The treaty shall take effect on the date on which the last ratification instrument is
deposited. The government of the Polish People's Republic shall advise the other states
that are parties to the treaty of each ratification instrument deposited with it.

Article 11. The present treaty shall remain in force for 20 years. For the contracting
parties which will not have submitted to the government of the Polish People's Republic a
statement denouncing the treaty a year before the expiration of its term, it shall remain in
force throughout the following ten years.

In the event of the organisation of a system of collective security in Europe and the
conclusion of a general European treaty of collective security to that end, which the
contracting parties shall unceasingly seek to bring about, the present treaty shall cease to
be effective on the date the general European treaty comes into force.

Done in Warsaw, on May 1, 1955, in one copy each in the Russian, Polish, Czech, and
German languages, all the texts being equally authentic. Certified copies of the present
treaty shall be transmitted by the government of the Polish People's Republic to all the
parties to this treaty.

Source
from Soviet News, No. 3165 (May 16, 1955), pp. 1-2.

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